Rotator Cuff Tears
A rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint that provides support and enables a wide range of motion. A major injury to these tendons may result in rotator cuff tears. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged and older individuals. A rotator cuff tear may occur with repeated use of the arm for overhead activities, while playing sports, or from a motor accident.
Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocation of the shoulder joint. A dislocation occurs when the end of the humerus (ball portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (socket portion) of the shoulder. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.
Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder
Throwing injuries of the shoulder are injuries sustained as a result of trauma by athletes during sports activities that involve repetitive overhand motions of the arm as in baseball, American football, volleyball, rugby, tennis, track and field events, etc. Throwing injuries are mostly seen in the shoulder and elbow and can occur due to improper techniques, training errors, muscle imbalance, and overuse of muscles.
Biceps Tendon Injuries
The biceps tendon can tear at the shoulder joint or elbow joint. Most biceps tendon ruptures occur at the shoulder and are referred to as proximal biceps tendon rupture. When it occurs at the elbow it is referred to as a distal biceps tendon rupture; however, this is less common.